NASA will attempt Tuesday to collect samples from the surface of an asteroid in a carefully orchestrated, hourslong maneuver in orbit.
After spending nearly two years circling the near-Earth asteroid Bennu, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft will use its robotic arm to gather pieces of the space rock that will subsequently be sent to Earth for study. The event marks an important milestone for NASA: If successful, it will be the first time the agency has gathered samples from an asteroid in space.
“It’s a historic first mission for NASA,” Thomas Zurbuchen, the associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, said in a news briefing Monday. “And it’s hard.”
The samples are expected to be delivered to Earth in September 2023, according to NASA. Scientists have said that the precious materials from Bennu’s surface could reveal intriguing insights into how the solar system came to be. Asteroids are pristine collections of the ancient ingredients that formed the solar system about 4.5 billion years ago, so studying the chemical properties of space rocks could unlock secrets about planets and the origins of life on Earth.
As a near-Earth asteroid, Bennu could also help researchers understand more about space rocks that pose a threat to the planet, as well as how these celestial bodies could be mined for valuable resources in the future.
The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft (short for Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer) has been orbiting Bennu from an altitude of approximately 2,500 feet but will spend several hours Tuesday descending toward the asteroid’s surface.
The spacecraft is equipped with an 11-foot-long robotic arm that will reach down and grab samples from the space rock. At around 6:12 p.m. EDT, the spacecraft’s arm is expected to touch down at a landing site dubbed Nightingale that NASA said is roughly the size of a few parking spaces.
The entire maneuver, which Zurbuchen likens to a “high five” with Bennu, will take about 4 1/2 hours. The spacecraft will be in contact with the asteroid for fewer than 16 seconds, according to NASA. The van-sized probe is expected to gather at least 2 ounces of rubble from the surface.
After the “touch-and-go” operation, OSIRIS-REx will fire its thrusters to safely back away from Bennu.
The $800 million OSIRIS-REx mission launched in September 2016 and the spacecraft arrived at Bennu roughly two years later. The probe has been mapping the asteroid’s surface, studying its composition and beaming back photos of the space rock, which is about as tall as the Empire State Building, according to NASA.
Bennu is located more than 200 million miles away from Earth but has an orbit that can swing it to within 4.6 million miles of the planet. As such, Bennu and other near-Earth asteroids are classified as potentially hazardous objects. NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office has calculated that there is a 1 in 2,700 chance of Bennu hitting Earth sometime between the years 2175 and 2199.